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As you know, the first distinction is made by temperature, fake stones are hotter to the touch than real ones. Natural stones are heavy, difficult to carve and have veins, these characteristics are absent in false ones. In addition, the structure represents another distinctive sign: the false stone does not have the same brilliance of quartz or calcite crystals in its structure, elements that are essential in natural stones.
In summary, the real stone is:
-It is more difficult to carve
-You have blemishes
-It has veins
-It is brilliant
-It has quartz or calcite crystals in its structure.
In few words, we designers recognize a gemstone by blemishes and veins (we use a magnifying glass to observe them). But even for experts it is sometimes not that easy, our trained eye helps and for specific stones like diamond, ruby, sapphire, and emerald specific tests are done.
One of the most complicated things is recognizing treated semi-precious stones, for example, Amethyst or Agate (stones used in many of our designs), even if they are true, they are treated with particular oils (a process called infiltration) that make them more homogeneous and transparent, while waxes and paraffins (a process called impregnation) intensify their color, but after a few years it may lose some of its shine intensified by the process.
Also keep in mind that the quality of a stone does not depend on its origin, but on its quality, be careful if someone wants to sell you "Peridot from Tenerife", make sure that it is actually from Tenerife and also take into account the stone itself and its characteristics. Only its quality depends on itself, and not where it comes from.